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在该领域具有先进陶瓷发挥着越来越重要的作用« oursolo.net

作者:企业资讯策划团队 来源:rwfb 发布时间:2010-04-23 浏览:170

先进陶瓷材料,也被称为精密陶瓷材料,新材料的一个重要组成部分广泛应用于通信,电子,航空,航天,军事和其他高科技领域的信息和通信技术,具有重要的应用。电子技术,大规模集成电路技术,不能压电,铁电和磁特性的陶瓷,电子计算机的记忆系统是否需要在铁磁体陶瓷广场磁滞回线,高速陶瓷轴承的硬盘驱动器所需的轮换制度,在火箭和导弹发射,鼻锥和透波陶瓷天线罩的重要组成部分,它要承受高温气流的摩擦和侵蚀,需要高强度和良好的高温抗氧化物质,只有陶瓷材料,以满足这些要求,作为一种新能源磁流体发电机,进行必要的陶瓷电极材料的使用;高温燃料电池,高能电池,需要离子导体陶瓷块用于执行分裂材料等。目前,先进陶瓷已成为一个巨大的高科技产业。在世界各地先进的陶瓷产品,超过30亿美元;销售,超过l0%的年增长率。美国和日本在该领域的{ldz}。先进陶瓷材料由于其优异的高温机械性能和独特的光学,声学,电,磁,热或功能的影响复合高科技产业,传统产业和国防工业领域的变革,例如发挥着越来越重要的作用。先进陶瓷

对未来发展方向的重点是要加强对这一进程的过程-结构-设计和研究的性质,有效的控制,达到预定的结构(包括电影,和纤维化,孔隙率的内容,非-结晶,以及优良的粮食,等等),注意粉标准化,系列化的研发和精密加工技术,降低生产成本,提高产品,重复性和生活能够得到*.

(1)制备纳米材料技术和纳米根据国外有关资料统计,陶瓷,在2000年,纳米结构材料的设备市场容量约为六千三百七十五万点零零零万美元,纳米材料薄膜器件市场容量为34亿美元,纳米粉体,纳米复合陶瓷和复合材料市场的能力,五千四百五十七万点零零零万美元。目前,纳米与精细陶瓷粉末制备方法有三大类:物理制备方法,气相,湿化学法。制备纳米陶瓷粉体有:Al203,Zr02,Si02,Si3N,碳化硅,BaTi03,Ti02等。研制纳米陶瓷,率领如真空烧结,微波烧结和等离子一些新的快速烧结设备的开发,烧结(SPS)等。

(二)先进的陶瓷复合材料技术,从材料性能的各种产品的长,组件设计,使新材料具有多种功能以满足下工作的有关材料和产品的要求,各种条件。

(1)陶瓷基纤维复合材料。纤维灵活运用,以提高陶瓷的脆性结构的行之有效的途径之一。在过去10年来,晶须或短纤维增强陶瓷材料的各种比连续陶瓷纤维等也相继问世。

(2)复合技术。 990年,根据仿生学原理叠层陶瓷引起国际社会的研究,以形成新的热点,其断裂韧性和断裂比传统的碳化硅陶瓷几次改进工作,极大地扩展了叠层陶瓷,产品的市场。

(3)梯度材料的设计和膜材料。 20世纪90年代,日本首先提出了作为功能材料,陶瓷复合新材料技术已知材料梯度提供了另一种。在此基础上,孔径分布梯度可制成的陶瓷膜材料的{zy1}性能。在催化反应,过滤和分离技术,陶瓷膜发挥了巨大作用。梯度材料设计和化学工业膜材料,石油化工,食品工程,环境工程,电子行业,有广阔的发展前景。

(4)介孔材料(在2nm?50nm的孔径大小)是20世纪90年代,新材料,最有代表性的MCM - 41孔径均匀,六有序阵列孔径党材料的发展能在不断调整,高比表面积和较好的热稳定性和热稳定性等水景。在大分子催化,吸附分离等领域有广阔的应用前景。

(三)低制备低成本高性能的陶瓷技术,开发先进的陶瓷产品推向市场,是{zd0}的障碍是非常昂贵的。降低成本,提高*,提高对陶瓷企业编制效率是xx的焦点。

(1)低制备原材料成本。除了提高固相合成技术,自蔓延高温合成(SHS),湿化学原料准备也很有效。原材料成本,如氮化硅目前60?350美元/公斤。美国道康宁美国已达到10美元/磅的水平。自蔓延高温合成的粉末制备国内使用的价格也大大减少。

(2)快速成型技术的近净尺寸。如何减少先进陶瓷零件的加工量,降低烧结收缩率,提高陶瓷生产形成了企业的效率,以提高技术为重点。随着凝胶,直接凝固,高压注射成型,从实验室走向工业化的成型压力过滤技术,采用先进的陶瓷产品的成本将大大降低。

(3)提高陶瓷加工效率,而且能减少生产成本的一个重要方面。先进的加工陶瓷部件的成本往往占了50%?75%的总成本。美国已经投资520万的专业知识,研究美元陶瓷加工方法。

(4)烧结设备的改进。主要是对节约能源,减少环境污染,提xx率的方向。微波烧结,连续烧结或快速烧结等新技术和设备也应运而生。

(四)非破坏性测试和性能保证和产品标准化的标准化,先进的陶瓷产品是市场的必要条件。产品的内部缺陷,有必要进行非破坏性的测试。目前,有专业的标准化机构,先进的陶瓷的性能,检测方法和产品的标准化负责。

Advanced ceramics in the field is playing an increasingly important role

Advanced ceramic materials, also known as precision ceramic materials, new materials are an important component of the widely used in communications, electronics, aviation, aerospace, military and other high-tech fields, in information and communication technology has important applications. Electronic technology, large-scale integrated circuit technology, can not be piezoelectric, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of ceramics; electronic computer memory system has required a square hysteresis loop in ferromagnets ceramics; high-speed hard drive ceramic bearing rotation system required; in the rockets and missiles launch, the nose cone and the wave-transparent ceramic radome are key components, which have to bear the high temperature air flow friction and erosion, require materials with high strength and good high-temperature oxidation resistance, only the ceramic materials to meet these requirements; as a new MHD energy generators, make necessary the use of ceramic electrode material; high-temperature fuel cells, high-energy batteries, require the use of ceramic ion conductor block to do divide the material and so on. At present, advanced ceramics has become an enormous high-tech industries. All over the world advanced ceramic products, total sales of more than 30 billion U.S. dollars, and more than l0% annual growth rate. The United States and Japan in the field leader. Advanced ceramic materials because of their excellent high temperature mechanical properties and unique optical, acoustic, electric, magnetic, thermal or functional effect in composite high-tech industries, the transformation of traditional industries and the defense industry in areas such as playing an increasingly important role. Advanced Ceramics

focus on the development of future direction is to strengthen the process - structure - properties of the design and research, and effective control over the process to reach a predetermined structure (including film, and fibrosis, porosity content, non - crystalline, and the fine grain, and so on), attention to powder standardization, seriation research and development and precision processing technology, lower manufacturing costs, improve products, repeatability, and life can be *.

(1) Preparation of nano-materials technology and nano-ceramics according to the relevant information abroad to statistics, in 2000, the structure of nano-materials device market capacity is about 637.5 billion U.S. dollars, nano-material thin film devices market capacity for 34 billion U.S. dollars, nano-powders, nano-composite ceramic and composite materials market capacity to 545.7 billion U.S. dollars. At present, nano-powders with fine ceramics preparation methods have three main categories: physical preparation method, gas-phase, wet chemical method. Preparation of nano-ceramic powders have: Al203, Zr02, Si02, Si3N, SiC, BaTi03, Ti02, etc.. Development of nano-ceramics, led a number of new rapid sintering equipment development, such as vacuum sintering, microwave sintering and plasma sintering (SPS) and so on.

(b) advanced ceramic composite technology and products from a variety of material properties of the long, for component design, so that the new material has a wide range of features to meet a variety of working conditions under the requirements of materials and products .

(1) ceramic matrix fiber composites. Flexible use of fiber to improve the structure of the brittle ceramics are one of well-established channels. The past 10 years, with whisker or short fiber reinforced ceramic materials to other than the various continuous ceramic fiber also have come out in succession.

(2) Laminated technology. l990, based on the principle of bionics laminated ceramic raised by research in the international community to form a new hot spot, its fracture toughness and fracture work than conventional SiC ceramics improve several times, significantly expanded the laminated ceramics and products market.

(3) graded material design and membrane material. 20th century 90s Japan first proposed a gradient of materials known as functional materials, new materials for the ceramic composite technology provides another way. On this basis, the gradient of pore size distribution can be made of the excellent performance of ceramic membrane materials. Ceramic membrane in the catalytic reaction, filtration and separation technologies have played an enormous role. Gradient materials design and membrane material in the chemical industry, petrochemical industry, food engineering, environmental engineering, electronics industry, there are broad prospects for development.

(4) mesoporous materials (pore size in the 2nm ~ 50nm) are the 20th century 90s development of new materials, the most representative of the MCM-41 materials with uniform pore size, the six-party in an orderly array aperture can be continuous adjustment, high specific surface area and better thermal stability and water features such as thermal stability. In macromolecular catalysis, adsorption separation and other fields have wide application prospect.

(c) Preparation of low-cost high-performance ceramics technology to develop advanced ceramic products to market are the biggest obstacle is very expensive. Reduce costs, increase *, and improve the efficiency of the preparation of the ceramic enterprises are the focus of attention.

(1) Preparation of low-cost raw materials. Apart from improving the technology of solid-phase synthesis, the self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), prepared by wet-chemical raw materials are very effective. Cost of raw materials such as Si3N4 currently 60 ~ 350 U.S. dollars / kg. Dowcorning the United States has reached 10 U.S. dollars / lb level. Preparation of the domestic use of SHS powder prices have also greatly reduced.

(2) rapid and near net size of molding technology. How to reduce the processing of advanced ceramic parts volume, lower sintering shrinkage and improve the efficiency of forming the ceramic production enterprises to improve the focus of technology. With the gel, direct solidification, high pressure injection molding and the molding pressure filtration technology from the laboratory towards industrialization, the cost of advanced ceramic products will be greatly reduced.

(3) improve the efficiency of ceramic processing, but also reduce an important aspect of product cost. Advanced ceramic parts processing costs tend to account for the total cost of 50% ~ 75%. The United States had 45.2 million U.S. dollars of investment expertise, research ceramic processing methods.

(4) sintering equipment improvements. Mainly towards energy conservation, reduce environmental pollution, improve the efficiency of direction. Microwave sintering, continuous sintering or rapid sintering and other new technology and equipment also came into being.

(d) non-destructive testing and standardization of performance guarantees and product standardization, advanced ceramic products are a necessary condition for market. Internal defects of the products is necessary to carry out non-destructive testing. At present, there are professional standardization body responsible for advanced ceramic performance, detection methods and the standardization of products. (07-11-21)

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