您好,欢迎来到中国企业库   [请登陆]  [免费注册]
小程序  
APP  
微信公众号  
手机版  
 [ 免责声明 ]     [ 举报 ]
企业库
搜产品 搜企业
客服电话:400-000-8722
企业库首页>资讯
行业
广告

Iron problems, master Come « Industry info 工业信息

作者:企业资讯策划团队 来源:rwfb 发布时间:2010-05-03 浏览:214

Question:
how does an iron is produced? The process is not the most original iron ore? After another hot rolling and cold rolling on the production of iron? Please master answered in detail, thank you

Answer:
iron and steel smelting process:
nature reserves is extremely rich in iron, accounting for 5% of the earth element content, ranking fourth in the Earths substance. Iron-smelting process is essentially from the natural form - minerals such as iron-containing compounds out of the process of restoration. Blast furnace iron production equipment. Derived from blast furnace production of pig iron smelting products, by-products are slag, gas and furnace dust.

from the blast furnace where iron is how Lian out?
simply means: conveying system to sinter (sintering plant from firing), the coke, limestone and other raw material input to the blast furnace top of the fabric system, from the fabric system, according to a certain percentage of uniform cloth into the furnace. Hot-air system will be blown into the blast furnace, coke combustion of a certain high temperature (1150 - 1200 degrees) chemical atmosphere, iron oxide sinter temperature and the environment in which reduction reaction occurs. The oxygen part of the ore in the form of carbon dioxide, some of it to carbon monoxide, there are some impurities in high-temperature gas is discharged into the dust and blast furnace gas purification system recovery system, useless carbon dioxide has been discharged, carbon monoxide is recycled. The iron ore is reduced after the heat down into the liquid hot metal. Iron also known as pig iron. Pig iron can be divided into three categories: one is for the steel used in iron and steel (SI silicon content of less than 1.25%); one is for the cast parts and tools for casting iron (silicon content is more than 1.25%); there is a category is Ferro-alloys (mainly ferromanganese and ferrosilicon).

Tempered Steel And how do?
steel in essence is the molten iron (pig iron) heat and add the different elements, by means of oxygen blowing, so that the carbon content of iron reduced to 0.2-1.7% of the smelting process. Refining a variety of different textures can be of steel. Such as addition of manganese on the refining out of manganese steel; Canadian nickel, chromium, titanium is not easy on a rusty steel refining.

the difference between iron and steel:
iron into pig iron and wrought iron. Wrought iron, steel and pig iron are iron-carbon alloy, the number of carbon content to differentiate. Generally less than 0.2% carbon content is called wrought iron or pure iron, 0.2-1.7% of the known content of steel, the content at 1.7% or more is called pig iron. Soft wrought iron, plastic, easy to deformation, strength and hardness were lower, not widely used; pig iron carbon content of a lot of hard and brittle, almost no plasticity; steel pig iron and wrought iron with two kinds of advantages for human widely used.

early iron ore and charcoal, is placed a layer sandwiching a layer of furnace, in 650-1000 ℃, and the use of charcoal roasting incomplete combustion of carbon monoxide to the iron ore restore iron. As the furnace temperature is low, can not make a melting point of 1535 ℃ melt the iron, so no liquid iron. After the success of people such as iron-smelting furnace cooled, remove the iron, this iron-making method known as block iron. Iron smelting in this way to get loose, but also to provincial judge ore mixed with many oxides and through. In practice, it was discovered that if the iron, heated to a certain temperature, it has repeatedly been forged, you can go out of the mixed oxides, this time on the mechanical properties of iron has been improved.

repeatedly forged iron, based on ancient block of iron also find the experience of carburizing Cheng Gang, this is the first steel to steel. It is to change the properties of the iron pieces to use charcoal for fuel, heating block, and forged iron, so a small amount of carbon from the iron surface, penetrated into going. Western Han Dynasty, in order to improve the quality of steel carburized iron block, people have increased the number of forged by ten times, thirty times, 50 times to nearly a hundred times to get so-called This phrase, which is used to metaphor well-tempered and very strong, to be good people.

the Spring and Autumn of steel smelting:
Spring and Autumn Period of Chinas transition from slave society to feudal society stage. Contributing to this social change and material factors is the development of social productive forces.

working tool is the development of social productive forces, an important symbol. Widespread use of iron tools, and promoting our country from slavery to the feudal system of transition. Shang Dynasty produced using iron meteorite iron copper ax blade, indicating the nature and forged iron inlay casting technology has a certain understanding and mastery of, but when I do not know man iron fashion.

Spring and Autumn period, iron had been in agriculture, handicraft production use. Agricultural production, the use of Tiechu, Tie Fu and so on. Iron hard, sharp, better than wood and stone and bronze tools. Jin Xing-ting with Cast Iron, cast iron tripod as the military assigned to private collection, and can be seen Jin iron has been a lot of people. Luhe County, Jiangsu Cheng Bridge, Changsha, Hunan Dragon Cave excavated slopes and other places of the Iron Spring and Autumn Period. Invention of the early Warring States Period, or a little long cast-iron technology, which is our working people, a significant contribution to the metallurgical technology, than about foreign countries a long一千八百年. Xinglong County, Hebei Province shouwangfen during the Warring States period unearthed a large number of iron Fan, including more complex composite Fan and double cavity, but also more difficult using metal cores, reflecting the casting process was already a high level. Warring States Period, the invention can be manufactured with the softness annealed malleable pieces of technology and multi-barrel blast technology is a major achievement in metallurgy, millennium or so earlier than in Europe. Warring States Shihai mastered solid block of iron carburized steel quenching methods and techniques.

iron block approach that is Because iron is a block of iron ore at a lower temperature reduction from the solid state is a product of charcoal, so loose texture, but also many from ore mixed oxides, such as ferrous oxide and silicate. This block of iron at a certain temperature if it is repeated forging, it will be going out of the mixed oxides, mechanical properties will be improved. From Jiangsu Luhe County, Cheng Qiaodong weeks tomb unearthed in iron is the iron block products. The late Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period is the initial number of forged iron with iron as the material block.

repeated practice of forged iron block, people would conclude that block iron carburization Cheng Gang experience. From Hebei Yixian Wu Yan village, under the balcony are 44 sites have been unearthed 79 tombs in the iron to an analysis identified most of their steel by forging into the block, and this proved to no later than the late Warring States period Lian block infiltration The technology has been in the application of carbon steel, block quality of soft iron will not be strong, despite block of steel carburization treatment, become more rigid, but the production is still inadequate. People in the production practice has worked out blocks of steel quenching process, which further enhanced the block of steel mechanical properties. The Xiadu unearthed forged pieces, mostly hardened, which in turn shows that at the time, people are more familiar with the quenching process.

pig iron smelting technology, raw materials, fuel refining method with essentially the same block. The main difference between them at the smelting temperature difference. Block Lian Law furnace temperature at about 1000 (C or so, from the melting point of pure iron (1534 (C), lagging far behind the iron smelting, the furnace temperature reached 1100-1200 (C. In the smelting, was restored generated Solid-state corporations will absorb carbon, such absorption as the temperature increased, the rate will accelerate.

the other hand, after absorption of carbon, iron, the melting point decreases, when the carbon content of up to 2.0%, the melting point down to 1380 (C; when the carbon content of 4.3%, the melting point of the lowest, only 1146 (C. Under these conditions, would enable the iron melting furnace, which received liquid pig iron. liquid cast iron can be directly cast Synthesizer , smelting process is simplified, and on to the production of iron has great development potential.

Jiangsu Luhe Cheng Qiaodong weeks tomb of iron pills, the fifth century BC, unearthed in Luoyang, the iron锛, shovel are cast iron utensils, This proves that the block at the same time refining the law, China has emerged iron smelting process. pig iron at the same time and block the development of ferrous metallurgy in ancient Chinas unique way of technological development. the world, many other countries, the development of the pig iron from iron block, Some experienced thousands of years of time. Take a number of European countries, although the block of iron has been a long time ago, but the emergence of pig iron in the AD 13 end of the century and the beginning of the fourteenth century.

the production of pig iron, high efficiency, casting performance, again is better, that the widespread use of iron with ease. In the early stages of smelting pig iron, as the temperature is not high enough silicon content is low, resulting in cooling of pig iron in the carbon graphite solidification can not become a state, but have become the three iron carbide (Fe3C ), and austenite state of iron in 1146 (C eutectic. Therefore, the refining of pig iron out of brittle and hard, casting performance, although good, but strong enough, this cast iron, people call it white iron, which only be able to cast some tools. from Hebei Xinglong Yan State Mining and Metallurgical unearthed a large number of hoes, Fan, etc., that is, by the white cast-iron into the.

In order to overcome the brittle white iron, in the early Warring States period, people have created a white Cast Iron soften processing technology. The so-called white cast iron softens the treatment is to heat a long time, so that decomposition of iron carbide and graphite iron, eliminating the large pieces of cementite, which reduce brittleness and improve toughness can play a good role in . treated white iron becomes a ductility of cast iron. Warring States period unearthed in Changsha, shovel, Huixian the Warring States period unearthed in the mid-iron hook, Yixian Xiadu the late Warring States period unearthed in iron Jue, hoe and so on, belong to the the ductility of cast iron.

Chinese:铁的产生问题,高手请进

问题:
请问一块铁是怎样生产出来的?过程中xxx的是不是铁矿?再经过热扎和冷扎就生产出铁?请各位高手详细回答,谢谢

回答:
钢铁的冶炼过程:
自然界中铁的蕴藏量极为丰富,占地壳元素含量的5%,居地球物质中的第四位。炼铁过程实质上就是将从自然形态矿石等含铁化合物还原出来的过程。炼铁生产设备是高炉。高炉生产所得的冶炼产品是生铁,副产品是炉渣、煤气和炉尘。

铁是怎样从高炉里炼出来的?
简单的说就是:输料系统把烧结矿(由烧结厂烧成的)、焦碳、石灰石等原料输入到高炉顶的布料系统,由布料系统均匀的按一定比例布入炉内。热风系统将风吹进高炉,焦碳燃烧形成一定的高温(11501200度)化学气氛,烧结矿中铁的氧化物在这种温度和环境下发生还原反应。矿石中的氧一部分形成二氧化碳,一部分变成一氧化碳,还有一些杂质气体被高温排走,进入除尘净化系统和高炉燃气回收系统,无用的二氧化碳被排走,一氧化碳被回收再利用。矿石中的铁被还原后在高温下行成液态铁水。铁水又叫生铁。生铁可分三类:一类是供炼钢用的钢铁(硅SI含量小于1.25%);一类是供浇铸机件和工具的铸造铁(硅含量大于1.25%);还有一类是铁合金(主要是锰铁和硅铁)。

钢又是怎样炼成的呢?
炼钢实质上是将铁水(生铁)加温并添加不同的元素,通过吹氧等手段,使铁的含碳量降低到0.2-1.7%的冶炼过程。可炼出多种不同质地的钢。如加锰,就炼出锰钢;加镍、铬、钛就炼出不易生锈的钢。
  
铁和钢的区别:
铁分为生铁和熟铁。熟铁、钢和生铁都是铁碳合金,以碳的含量多少来区别。一般含碳量小于0.2%的叫熟铁或纯铁,含量在0.2-1.7%的叫钢,含量在1.7%以上的叫生铁。熟铁软,塑性好,容易变形,强度和硬度均较低,用途不广;生铁含碳很多,硬而脆,几乎没有塑性;钢具有生铁和熟铁两种优点,为人类广泛利用。

早期的炼铁是将铁矿石和木炭一层夹一层地放在炼炉中,在650-1000℃和上焙烧利用木炭的不xx燃烧产生的一氧化碳使铁矿石中的氧化铁还原成铁。由于炼炉中温度偏低,不能使熔点为1535℃的铁熔化,所以得不到液态的铁。人们等炼铁成功后冷却炼炉,取出铁块, 这种炼铁方法叫块炼铁。用这种方法炼得铁质地疏松,还夹杂着许多来臬矿石的氧化物和经。在实践中人们发现如果把这种铁,加热到一定温度下经这反复锻打,就可把夹杂的氧化物挤出去,此时铁的机械性能就得到了改善。

在反复锻打铁块的基础上,古人又找出块炼铁渗碳成钢的经验,这种钢地就是最早的钢。它是为改变块炼铁的性能而要用木炭作燃料,加热块炼铁并锻打,这样少量的碳会从铁的表面渗进去。西汉时,为提高块炼铁渗碳钢的质量,人们都增加了锻打的次数,由十次,三十次,五十次增至近百次从而得到所谓的“百炼钢”。由此也产生了“百炼成钢”这一成语,它用来比喻久经锻炼,变得非常坚强,成为优秀人物。

春秋战国钢铁的冶炼:
春秋时代是我国由奴隶社会向封建社会转变的阶段。促成这一社会变革��物质因素,是社会生产力的发展。

劳动工具是社会生产力发展的重要标志。铁制工具的广泛使用,促进了我国由奴隶制向封建制的过渡。商代用陨铁制作了铁刃铜钺,说明对铁的性质和锻打嵌铸的技术已经有了一定的认识和掌握,但当时尚不知人工炼铁。

春秋时期,铁器已经在农业、手工业生产中使用。农业生产中使用铁锄、铁斧等。铁器坚硬、锋利,胜过木石和青铜工具。晋国用铁铸刑鼎,铸鼎的铁是作为军赋向民间征收的,可见晋国民间铁已不少。在江苏六合县程桥、湖南长沙龙洞坡等地出土了春秋时的铁器。战国初或稍早已发明铸铁技术,这是我国劳动人民对冶金技术的重大贡献,比外国早一千八百年左右。河北兴隆县寿王坟出土了大量战国时的铁范,其中有较复杂的复合范和双型腔,还采用了难度较大的金属型芯,反映了当时的铸造工艺已有较高水平。战国时发明的用柔化退火制造可锻铸件的技术和多管鼓风技术是冶金技术的重要成就,比欧洲早二千年左右。战国时还掌握了块炼铁固态渗碳制钢的方法和淬火技术。

块炼铁的方法也就是“固体还原法”。由于块炼铁是铁矿石在较低温度下从固体状态被木炭还原的产物,所以质地疏松,还夹杂有许多来自矿石的氧化物,例如氧化亚铁和硅酸盐。这种块炼铁在一定温度下若经过反复锻打,便可将夹杂的氧化物挤出去,机械性能就改善了。从江苏六合县程桥东周墓出土的铁条,就是块炼铁的产品。春秋末期和战国初期的一些锻造铁器也是以块炼铁为材料。

在反复锻打块炼铁的实践中,人们又总结出块炼铁渗碳成钢的经验。从河北易县武阳台村的燕下都遗址44号墓中曾出土79件铁器,经分析鉴定,它们的大部分都是由块炼钢锻成的,这证明至迟在战国后期块炼渗碳钢的技术已在应用,块炼铁质柔不坚,块炼钢虽经渗碳处理,变得较坚硬,但在生产上仍嫌不足。人们在生产实践中又摸索出块炼钢的淬火工艺,这就进一步提高了块炼钢的机械性能。上述燕下都出土的锻钢件,大部份是经过淬火处理的,这又表明在当时,人们对淬火工艺也较熟悉了。

生铁的冶铸工艺,在原料、燃料上与块炼法基本一样。它们之间主要的差别在冶炼温度的不同。块炼法的炉温大约在1000(C左右,离纯铁的熔点(1534(C)相差很远,而生铁冶炼时,炉温达到了1100-1200(C。在冶炼中,被还原生成的固态铁会吸收碳,这种吸收随着温度的升高,速度就会加快。

另一方面吸收碳后,铁的熔点随之降低,当含碳量达到2.0%时,熔点降至1380(C;当含碳量达到4.3%时,熔点为{zd1},仅1146(C。在这种条件下,炉温就可使铁熔化,从而得到了液态的生铁。液态生铁就可以直接浇铸成器,冶铸过程简化了,就使铁器的生产有了大发展的可能。

江苏六合程桥东周墓出土的铁丸,洛阳出土的公元前五世纪的铁锛、铁铲都是生铁器物,这证明在块炼法的同时,我国已出现生铁冶铸工艺。生铁与块炼铁同时发展,是我国古代钢铁冶金技术发展的独特途径。世界上许多其他国家,从块炼铁发展到生铁,大约经历了上千年的时间。就拿欧洲一些国家来说,虽很早已有块炼铁,但出现生铁则在公元十三世纪末和十四世纪初。

生铁的生产效率高,铸造性能又较好,这为广泛使用铁器提供方便。在冶炼生铁的初期,由于温度还不够高,硅含量也较低,致使生铁中的碳在冷却凝固时不能成为石墨状态,而成为碳化三铁(Fe3C),与奥氏体状态的铁在1146(C共晶。因此,炼出的生铁性脆而硬,铸造性能虽好,但强度不够,这种生铁,人们称它为白口铁,它只能铸造某些农具。从河北兴隆燕国矿冶遗址出土的大批锄、范等,就是由白口铁铸成的。

为了克服白口铁的脆性,在战国早期,人们就创造了白口铸铁柔化处理技术。所谓柔化处理就是将白口铸铁长时间加热,使碳化铁分解为铁和石墨,xx了大块的渗碳体,这对减少脆性、提高韧性可以起良好的作用。处理后的白口铁就变成了展性铸铁。长沙出土的战国铁铲,辉县出土的战国中期铁带钩,易县燕下都出土的战国晚期铁镢、锄等,都是属于这种展性铸铁。

标签: , ,

郑重声明:资讯 【Iron problems, master Come « Industry info 工业信息】由 企业资讯策划团队 发布,版权归原作者及其所在单位,其原创性以及文中陈述文字和内容未经(企业库www.qiyeku.com)证实,请读者仅作参考,并请自行核实相关内容。若本文有侵犯到您的版权, 请你提供相关证明及申请并与我们联系(qiyeku # qq.com)或【在线投诉】,我们审核后将会尽快处理。
会员咨询QQ群:902340051 入群验证:企业库会员咨询.
免费注册只需30秒,立刻尊享
免费开通旗舰型网络商铺
免费发布无限量供求信息
每天查看30万求购信息
中山市八喜电脑网络有限公司版权所有 © 2006-2022     客服:0760-23776398      粤ICP备11060901号      免责声明     举报     平台资质