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Protection of the environment - to develop green packaging ...

作者:企业资讯策划团队 来源:rwfb 发布时间:2010-05-15 浏览:170

Introduced the use of packaging materials and recycling the status quo, according to the meaning of green packaging materials to clarify the use of packaging and packaging waste recycling and coordinate development initiatives.

[Key words] green packaging; packaging materials; Packaging Waste Recycling

“green packaging” has two meanings: - the entire packaging process on the ecological environment and human health will not cause pollution and damage; - the use of The packaging material must be used for sustainable development of renewable material.

green packaging concept, began in the last century, the proliferation of white pollution. White pollution, is to promote the type and quantity of packaging materials fair use, as well as the effective recycling of packaging waste.

1, green packaging materials and packaging materials classified

green is what we in the production, manufacture, use and recycling of packaging materials in harmless to human health, a good ecological environment protection and recycling reuse of packaging material. For example, polypropylene, corrugated paper, edible rice paper, corn paper, edible renewable fresh paper, as well as our daily paper used in packaging products and paper bags, paper cups, paper and lunch boxes.

now strong global research and development of new green packaging materials (biodegradable material), are difficult to deal with for the “white pollution” per se. Therefore, green packaging materials, materials in accordance with environmental protection requirements and the attribution of after use can be divided into three categories.

First, dealing with recycling of recyclable material. Including paper, cardboard materials, molded paper pulp material, metallic materials, glass materials, the usual linear polymer materials (plastics, fibers), also include biodegradable polymer materials;

second is to return to natural weathering material. Including: - paper products materials (paper, cardboard, molded pulp material); - a variety of biodegradable materials (photo-degradation, bio-degradable, oxygen degradation, light / oxygen degradation, water degradation), and bio-composite materials, grass , straw filled, shell filling, natural fiber filler material, etc.; - edible material;

three quasi-green packaging materials, can be recovered burning, do not pollute the atmosphere and possibly the amount of recycled material. Including some not recycling and recycling of linear polymers, polymer mesh material, part of the composite materials (plastic / metal, plastic / plastic, plastic / paper) and so on.

Second, the development of green packaging materials

1. green packaging and printing papers

in the paper, plastic, metal, glass, these four kinds of packaging materials, paper products, the fastest growing. The World Health Organization and national environmental experts believe that after the plastic waste can cause white pollution, is not conducive to environmental protection, and therefore should be gradually prohibit the use of plastic grocery bags, and requiring the use of environmentally friendly paper packaging. Shopping in the future to use non-toxic, harmless “paper bags.”

paper packaging materials is not only rich in natural resources, easy recovery, and easy to degrade. Paper products, after corruption, either paper or for recycling plant fertilizer, can also reduce air pollution and purify the environment. Thus, plastic, metal, glass, other than the three packages, with “eco-cycle Assessment Law,” technology for quantitative assessment of the paper packaging will be the most promising green packaging materials. Cartons, paper bags, bucket, paper pulp molding products in modern packaging industry an important part. At present, paper and paperboard production increased year by year, packaging, paper and paperboard account for more than 50% of the total output of paper and paperboard, paper, per capita consumption has become an international measure of a country’s economic development level and important indicator of the level of civilization. Packaging products around the world, the proportion of the materials used, the paper accounts for the first use.

Many Japanese companies have for the printing of paper packaging and production of research in the field of green packaging and printing papers, active in the green packaging product market. Japan’s Nippon Paper Co., Ltd. developed a totally natural fiber as raw material, product name as the “Npimold Paper” deep punching paper, its scalability is a plain paper 5 ~ 10 times. This stamping die forming of paper may suppress the text, graphics and three-dimensional surface, similar to plastics processing, processing of its convex smooth as can be to achieve a better seal. The product can use the current production equipment, plastic products, according to design die forming. As the pre-processing does not require heat softening, can improve production efficiency and save energy. Challenge Five Limited launched by Mit Subishi produced biodegradable films and envelopes. This film and the envelope is extracted from corn starch, poly-lactic acid as raw materials for production, use soy ink for offset printing. Dynic Limited corn starch and lipids and polyester as the raw material to develop biodegradable soft sheet “AuPairCornSheet”, goal is to eventually replace PVC. This material is easy processing of cutting, easy-to-print, can use the request to adjust its thickness. Landfill disposal of waste will not pollute the environment, the burning of low calorific value due to processing without creating toxic substances such as dioxin and therefore less harmful to the environment.

the latest applications of new paper packaging market is the liquor packaging. For example, Japan is now popular to replace the glass bottle as a wine carton packaging. Western countries also have the use of paper packaging materials, wine, wine filling into the Tetra Pak cartons in the aseptic brick. Because Tetra Pak is safe, shelf-life, non-friable, and advantages of the explosion is not easy, but easy to carry and easy to open. In addition, one of its prominence is that formed by the six-layer composite material, strengthened tightness, but also enhanced the anti-alcohol packaged leakage, evaporation effect; while being able to block direct sunlight to avoid deterioration. Japan has also recently developed a composite cartons used to hold cooking oil to paper as a substrate by aluminum 6-layer composite formed, its structure is: PE / Paper / PE / AL / PET / PE. The packaging is not only light weight, safe, and suitable for printing.

a Japanese company has developed a heating or additives which do not have the dehydration feature wrapping paper - PS wrapping. It does this by absorbing water along the intercellular space, not only can absorb moisture from the surface of food, but also can absorb moisture from within the in-depth, also has absorption features at low temperatures. In this way, the wrapping will be able to inhibit the activity of enzymes to prevent protein degradation, reducing the propagation of microorganisms, to maintain the freshness of food, concentrated flavor components, remove the water vapor to enhance the effect of toughness. With the use of the packaging of fish, meat dishes to do, can reduce the heating of the heat, heat oil to prevent deterioration, facilitate conditioning process, because through the freeze without losing flavor. The mechanism of the wrapping paper is to select only through the water to the surface of semi-permeable membrane material, then place the high osmotic pressure inside the material and polymer absorbents. As food in liquid state of water in the osmotic pressure difference can be semi-permeable membrane material and move to the high osmotic pressure, so that these water-absorbent polymer was fixed.

paper material has long been considered to be environmentally friendly material, it can be recycled. However, some wrap material added to increase the intensity of the other substances, thus affecting the recycling of. Europe and the United States now a popular food PLMEX special wrapping paper, non-fluorescent agents and harmful chemicals in the body. PLMEX made from paper with a waterproof, anti-oil, anti-stick and heat resistance characteristics, and wash with water after use can be re-used, frequency of use up to 50 times. BASF Chemical Industry Group has also developed a apply on the surface of the protective packaging coatings, which are polymer-dispersed liquid coated wrapping paper off water, moisture, oil and grease-resistant, but without changing the existing production process will be able to manufacture out, does not affect the recovery and recycling results.

2. Polylactic acid Polylactic Acid

packaging materials has become a hot research and development worldwide. It is by the number of lactic acid molecules aggregate into a new type of biodegradable polymer materials, can be completely decomposed into water and carbon dioxide, without any harm to the environment.

2004 Nian 11 months, Shanghai Xinli Technology Co., Ltd. and Industrial Microbiology Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, jointly developed biodegradable polylactic acid materials have been successfully developed, and is listed as Shanghai, such as major industrialization projects .

the United States, France, Japan and other countries have development and utilization of maize, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes and other agricultural products as raw material, production of lactic acid fermentation, thereby producing poly-lactic acid. U.S. LLC, corn-based biodegradable plastics process is as follows: First, the corn ground into flour, isolated starch, and then extracted from the starch out of the original glucose. Then anaerobic lactic acid bacteria fermentation, the fermentation process with liquid caustic soda and in generating lactic acid, fermentation broth after purification using electrodialysis process, made up 99.5% purity of the L-lactic acid. Then extracted lactic acid made the final 11 polylactic acid polymer. The world each year up to 6 million tons of corn production, making it the preferred bio-degradable plastic materials.

U.S. CollegeFarm brand candy wrappers using biodegradable polylactic acid resin film. This film has a crystalline transparency and excellent kink preservation, printability and strength, and a high barrier, could be better preserved candy flavor. Germany, a company using polylactic acid as raw material has successfully developed a natural decomposition of functions with fast green food cup, to address the past, disposable plastic packaging materials degradation problems, has opened up a practical application of the new road.

3. the natural bio-packaging materials

natural bio-packaging materials such as wood, bamboo materials, wood chips, hemp fabric, wicker, reeds and straw, wheat straw, etc., in the natural environment, easy to decompose without polluting the environment and resources, renewable, and low cost. Packaging products such as bamboo can be of secondary use of waste can be burned using heat; compost corruption, can be used as fertilizer; waste can be natural degradation. High strength bamboo plywood, low price, light weight, easy to waste recycling, do not pollute the environment, etc., is an excellent green packaging materials.

4. Food rubbish packaging

According to the United States, “New Scientist” magazine describes, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute of Health and chemists will be made of a food waste could be bio-degradable polymers, researchers humorously called “the perfect plastic.” This could be degraded in a short time a wide range of plastics applications, not only can be used to make bottles, bags and other packaging materials, drug capsules can also be made of coat. Natural Energy Research Institute, according to biochemist, said the new biodegradable plastic material is water mixture with a variety of food waste per 100kg to produce a mixture of 22 ~ 25kg degradable plastic, significantly reducing production costs.

3, promote the development of green packaging materials, measures

1. to develop green packaging materials development planning

involves the development of green packaging materials to many high-tech, industrial research in developed countries fully bio-degradable plastics for several years, but so far the real industrial products are not many of which involve a number of pilot studies and industrial production problems. The development of green packaging materials, the need of industrial enterprises, research institutes, colleges and universities co-operation. And should therefore be to develop five to 10 years of green packaging materials development plans, put forward the main research and development projects and goals, such as high-performance, low-cost, disposable tableware and packaging, pulp molding products, to replace the wooden box packaging and production of honeycomb carton equipment, plant fiber cushioning packaging products, completely bio-degradable plastics, edible packaging material, lightweight high-strength thin-walled glass bottles, high-quality packaging waste recycling technology, especially high-quality waste plastic recycling technologies, waste plastic, green technologies, focused on human, financial, organizational lean team planned to carry out targeted research collaboration to make our country the development of green packaging materials into the world.

2. to develop and perfect the legal system of green packaging

Over the last decade, the developed countries have taken measures to develop all sorts of laws and directives, mainly the following.

One is legislation to prohibit the use of certain packaging materials. If legislation bans the use of lead, mercury and copper components of packaging materials; can not use the apparatus; to achieve a specific percentage of recycled packaging materials.

2 is to establish a system memory returned. Regulations in many countries, alcoholic beverages and soft drinks shall be of a reusable container. Some countries (eg Denmark) requirements, if it can not meet this standard, then refused to import.

Third, the implementation of tax benefits or a fine. Namely, the production and use of packaging materials manufacturers, packaging materials according to their production or use of packaging is safe, or part of the use of packaging materials can be recycled, were given tax exemptions, low tax benefits or pay higher taxes in order to encourage the use of renewable resources.

4 is to promote appropriate packaging. Excessive packaging creates waste of resources, but also cause unnecessary environmental pollution. Some developed countries are advocating appropriate packaging, and have introduced a number of laws and regulations. Such as the United States on the degree to luxury goods packaging complex was standardized according to certain restrictions on the proportion of over-packaging is severe punishment than what is required, thereby forcing manufacturers to simplify packaging and packaging in Japan even proposed the idea of zero.

green packaging in China, although not law, but does not mean no regulation of green packaging laws and regulations. “Environmental Protection Law” established environmental protection and economic and social development of the principles of harmony; prevention first, combining prevention with control, integrated governance principles; the polluter pays, the use of those compensation, developers protection, destroyer of the principles of recovery, as well as the principle of relying on the masses to protect the environment. In addition, the “Environmental Protection Law” also stipulates that an environmental impact assessment system, “three simultaneous” system, charging system, licensing system, the deadline the basic system of governance system. Legislative management, as the coercive instrument of environmental management, is widely used around the world an effective measure to protect the smooth operation of green packaging system is necessary to establish a sound and comprehensive legal system, through legislation to manage the packaging production, circulation and use to the laws and regulations to promote the development of green packaging.

3. developing environmentally friendly production and recycling technology

packaging materials life-cycle environmental performance of the whole process should be evaluated. In fact, at present mainly used for paper, plastic, metal, glass packaging in the production process is much greater than the environmental pollution caused by environmental pollution resulting from waste, such as paper packaging in the pulp and paper industry in the discharge of waste, plastic packaging in the oil raw materials, refining the process of atmospheric pollution, metal wrapped in a milling, coating processes of noise, dust pollution, physical and psychological consequences to the workers, glass packaging in the smelting process, and smoke emitted carbon dioxide, silicon dioxide on the environment pollution caused by … … are very serious. Therefore, to make packaging materials in its life cycle, the whole process has a “green” performance, it must be clean production. In the “clean energy and raw materials” or “clean production process” or “clean products” three elements, the most important is the development of cleaner production technology, clean production process that is “less waste” and “no-waste” process , to establish a closed circle of production, so that the production process, or precipitation or volatilization loss of the material lost by leaking through the recovery and recycling, as the raw materials come back to use, built from raw materials into the recycling use of closed production process, as far as possible to reduce external emissions of waste, do not only improve the resource utilization, but also fundamentally put an end to the “three wastes” generated, so that the packaging industry production environment is not suffering. In China from January 1, 2003 formally to implement “Cleaner Production Promotion Law,” the production process toxic and hazardous, pollute the environment should be made compulsory for cleaner production audit. Therefore, great efforts to develop green packaging materials, cleaner production technology development of green packaging materials is essential.

single-material packaging, easy-to-recovery and recycling, while the multi-layered structure of composite materials must be easy to consider whether separation, without prejudice to re-use. Such as aluminum beverage to listen, and coated with organic coating, in the recovery of the organic coating can be melted, burning will not create difficulties for recycling, while the composite difficult to separate paper and plastic packaging for purification. Major advantage of composite materials with a variety of functions, the biggest drawback is that recovery is difficult, it is difficult in the separation layer, but also in recycling composite materials, if mixed in a single material, it will allow the recovery of the quality of a single material damage, such as aluminum paper plastic composite infiltrated a single cardboard recycling compound, it will undermine its beating performance; entering into the unity of the plastic film, also make recycling obsolete products. Therefore, recycling of composite materials in general can only make fuel burned in the incinerator heat recovery. The current solution of high functionality and composite materials, the contradiction between environmental performance and its main directions: ① to develop a single high-performance materials to replace the composite material; ② the development of green easy to be recycled composite materials. Both development effort are high.

goods green packaging is an irreversible trend of development is a complicated systematic project, the use of green packaging materials, and efficient recycling is one of the very important two aspects, and only allow development and application of packaging materials and simultaneous development of recycling in order to achieve true green circle.

保护环境-发展绿色包装材料

介绍了包装材料的使用和回收的现状,根据绿色包装材料的意义,澄清包装和包装废弃物回收利用和协调发展的举措。

[关键词]绿色包装,包装材料,包装废弃物回收

“绿色包装”有两个含义: -对生态环境和人类健康的整个包装过程中不会造成污染和破坏; -的使用包装材料必须使用可再生材料的可持续发展。

绿色包装的概念,开始于上个世纪,白色污染的扩散。白色污染,是促进的种类和数量的包装材料的合理使用,以及包装废弃物的有效回收。

1,绿色包装材料和包装材料的绿色分类

我们在生产,制造,使用和对人体健康无害,良好的生态环境的保护和回收再利用的包装材料包装材料回收。例如,聚丙烯,瓦楞纸,可食用的宣纸,玉米纸,食用可再生保鲜纸,以及我们的日常生活中使用纸包装产品和纸袋,纸杯,纸饭盒等。

现在强大的全球研究和开发新的绿色包装材料(可降解材料),发展是难以处理的“白色污染”本身。因此,绿色包装材料,材料符合环保要求和规定的归属使用后可分为三类。

首先,可回收材料回收处理。包括纸张,纸板材料,纸浆模塑材料,金属材料,玻璃材料,通常的线型高分子材料(塑料,纤维),也包括生物降解高分子材料;

二是要回归自然风化料。包括: -纸制品材料(纸张,纸板,纸浆模塑材料); -一种可生物降解的各种材料(光降解,生物降解,氧降解,光/氧降解,水降解),生物复合材料,草,稻草填充,贝壳填充,天然纤维填充材料等; -食用材料;

3准绿色包装材料,可以回收焚烧,不污染大气,并有可能再生材料的数量。包括一些没有回收和循环再造的线性聚合物,聚合物网状材料,复合材料的一部分(塑料/金属,塑料/塑料,塑料/纸)等。

第二,绿色包装材料的发展

1。绿色包装和印刷用纸

在纸张,塑料,金属,玻璃,包装材料,纸制品增长最快的这4种。世界卫生组织和国家环保专家认为,塑料废物后,可能会导致白色污染,不利于保护环境,因此应逐步禁止使用塑料食品袋,并要求环保纸包装的使用。今后购物使用无毒,无害“的纸袋。”

纸包装材料,不仅自然资源丰富,易回收,易降解。纸制品,腐败后,无论是纸张再造厂肥料,还可以减少空气污染,净化环境。因此,塑料,金属,玻璃,比其他与三包“生态循环评估法”,为纸包装的量化评估技术,将是最有前途的绿色包装材料。纸箱,纸袋,水桶,纸浆在现代包装工业的重要组成部分成型产品。目前,纸和纸板产量逐年上升,包装,纸张和纸板占一半以上的纸张和纸板,纸张总产量%,人均消费量已成为衡量一个国家的经济发展水平和重要的国际措施指标的文明程度。世界各地的包装产品,所用材料的比重,首次使用的文件帐户。

许多日本公司的纸包装和研究生产的绿色包装和印刷用纸,在绿色包装产品市场的活跃领域的印刷经营活动。新日本制纸公司开发出一种为原料,为“Npimold文件”深冲纸产品名称完全天然纤维,其伸缩性是普通纸5?10倍。这种冲压模具成型纸可能抑制文字,图形和三维曲面,类似塑料加工,其凸光滑处理,可以达到更好的密封。该产品可以使用现有的生产设备,塑料制品,按设计模具成型。由于前处理不需要加热软化,可提高生产效率和节省能源。挑战五由麻省理工学院Subishi有限公司生产的可生物降解的推出电影和信封。这部电影的信封是从玉米中提取淀粉,聚为原料生产乳酸,用于胶印大豆油墨。顶力有限公司玉米淀粉和脂肪类物质为原料,开发可生物降解的聚酯软板“AuPairCornSheet”,目标是最终能取代PVC。这种材料的切削,易于印刷,可以使用要求调整其厚度易于加工。堆填区的废物处理不会污染环境,不造成二恶英等有毒物质,从而减少对环境有害的燃烧热值低,由于处理。

新的纸包装市场的{zx1}应用是酒包装。例如,日本现在流行取代作为葡萄酒纸箱包装玻璃瓶。西方国家也有纸包装材料,酒,酒到利乐砖纸盒无菌灌装使用。由于利乐包装是安全的,保质期,不易碎,和爆炸的优点是不容易的,但便于携带,易于打开。此外,它的突出之一是成立了6层复合材料,加强密封性好,而且也提高了反酒精包装渗漏,蒸发作用;而能够阻止阳光直接照射,以避免恶化。日本最近还开发用于存放食油的文件,以作为由铝6底物复合层组成的复合纸盒,其结构是:聚乙烯/纸/聚乙烯/铝箔/ PET / PE复合。该包装不仅重量轻,安全,适合打印。

一家日本公司已开发出加热或添加剂而没有脱水功能的包装纸-私人秘书包装。它通过吸收沿此间隙水,不仅能吸收食品表面的水分,而且还可以在吸收水分的深入,也有吸收功能,在低温下。在这样的包装可以抑制酶的活性,防止蛋白质的降解,减少微生物繁殖,保持粮食,集中清新香味成分,去除水气,提高韧性的效果。随着鱼的包装使用,肉类菜肴做,可以减少热量加热,热油,以防止恶化,方便调节的过程,因为通过冻结,而不会失去味道。该包装纸机制,是只有通过对半表面渗透膜材料,然后选择的地方水高内部的物质和高分子吸水剂渗透压。正如水的液态食品中的渗透压差,可半透膜材料和移动到高渗透压,使这些吸水性聚合物是固定的。

文件材料一直被认为是环保材料,它可以被回收。然而,一些包装材料的补充,增加了其他物质的强度,从而影响回收。欧洲和美国现在流行的食品PLMEX特殊包装纸,无荧光剂和有害化学物质在体内。 PLMEX制成的纸,防水,防油,抗粘,耐热的特点,用清水洗净,用后可重复使用,使用频率高达50倍。巴斯夫化工集团还开发了适用于保护性包装涂料,这是聚合物表面分散液涂过水包装纸,水分,油脂性,但没有改变现有的生产过程将能够制造出,不影响回收和循环再造的结果。

2。聚乳酸聚乳酸

包装材料已经成为一个热门的研究和全世界的发展。它是由乳酸分子总数为生物降解的新型高分子材料,可完全分解成水和二氧化碳,没有任何对环境的损害。

2004念11个月,上海新立科技有限公司及工业微生物材料科学与工程,同济大学联合开发的可生物降解的聚乳酸材料已研制成功,被列为上海,如重大产业化项目。

美国,法国,日本和其他国家的发展和利用玉米,甘蔗,甜菜,马铃薯作为原料,乳酸发酵生产其他农产品,从而产生聚乳酸。美国有限责任公司,玉米为原料的生物可降解塑料的过程如下:{dy},把面粉,玉米淀粉孤立地,然后从原来的葡萄糖淀粉提取出来。然后,厌氧乳酸菌发酵,液体烧碱和产生乳酸发酵过程中,发酵液纯化后用电渗析过程中,由99.5%纯度的L -乳酸。然后提取乳酸作出{zh1}11个聚乳酸聚合物。全世界每年多达600万吨的玉米产量,成为{sx}的生物降解塑料材料。

美国CollegeFarm品牌的糖果包装纸使用可生物降解的聚乳酸树脂膜。这部电影有一个良好的透明度和结晶扭结保存,可印刷性和强度,以及高的障碍,可以更好地保存糖果的味道。德国一公司采用聚乳酸为原料,已成功开发出具有快速绿色食品杯的功能自然分解,以解决过去,一次性塑料包装材料的退化问题,开辟了新道路的实际应用。

3。天然生物包装材料

天然生物包装材料,如木材,竹子材料,木屑,麻织物,柳条,芦苇和稻草,麦秸等,在自然环境中,易分解,不污染环境和资源,可再生,成本低。如竹包装产品可废物的二次利用,可焚烧利用热量;堆肥腐败,可作为肥料使用,废物可自然降解。高强度竹胶合板,价格低,重量轻,易回收,不污染环境等,是一个很好的绿色包装材料。

4。食物垃圾包装

据美国“新科学家”杂志介绍,夏威夷自然能源研究院生化学家将食物渣滓的可生物降解的聚合物,研究人员幽默地称为“完美的塑料。 “这可能会下降在短期内的塑料应用范围广泛,不仅可用于制造瓶,袋等包装材料,药物胶囊也可以是标记的。自然能源研究所,根据生物化学说,新的生物降解塑料是水的粮食品种每一零零千克废物混合物产生22?25公斤混合降解塑料,大大降低了生产成本。

3,促进绿色包装材料,措施

发展

1。发展绿色包装材料的发展规划

涉及绿色包装材料的发展,许多高科技,工业发达国家研究完全生物降解塑料的数年,但迄今为止,真正的工业产品并不是很多,其中涉及的试验研究和工业生产的一些问题。绿色包装材料的发展,工业企业,科研院所,高等院校合作的需要。因此应该是发展5至10个绿色包装材料的发展计划里,提出如高性能的主要研究和发展项目和目标,成本低,一次性餐具和包装,纸浆模塑制品,以取代木箱包装,蜂窝纸箱设备生产,植物纤维缓冲包装产品,完全生物降解塑料,食用包装材料,轻质高强薄壁玻璃瓶,高品质的包装废弃物回收技术,特别是高品质废塑料循环利用技术,废塑料,绿色技术,在人力,财力,组织精干队伍集中计划进行有针对性的研究合作,使之成为世界上我国的绿色包装���料的发展。

2。制定和完善绿色包装的法律制度

过去十年

,发达国家已经采取措施,发展的法律和各种指示,主要有以下。

是立法禁止使用某些包装材料。如果立法禁止铅,汞和铜的成分的包装材料的使用,不能使用的设备;实现再生包装材料的具体比例。

二是要建立一个系统内存返回。在许多国家,酒类和软饮料规章应可重复使用的容器。一些国家(如丹麦)的要求,如果不能达到这一标准,那么拒绝进口。

第三,税收优惠或罚款的执行情况。也就是说,生产和使用的包装材料制造商,包装材料根据其生产或使用的包装是安全的,或者对包装材料的使用可循环再用的一部分,被给予免税,低税优惠或支付更高的税收秩序鼓励利用可再生资源。

四是促进适当的包装。过度包装造成资源浪费,而且还造成不必要的环境污染。一些发达国家提倡适度包装,并推出了一系列的法律和规定。作为美国这样的奢侈品包装的复杂程度是根据有关标准的比例一定的限制过度包装的重于所需要的,从而迫使生产商简化包装和包装在日本甚至提出了零的想法,处罚。

在中国绿色包装,虽然不是法律,但不等于没有绿色包装的法律和规例。 “环境保护法”设立了环境保护与经济和社会和谐发展的原则,预防为主,预防与控制相结合,综合治理的原则,污染者自付,这些补偿的使用,开发保护,恢复的原则驱逐舰,以及关于依靠群众保护环境的原则。此外,“环境保护法”还规定,环境影响评价制度,“三同时”制度,收费制度,许可证制度,限期治理制度的基本制度。立法管理,环境管理的强制性手段,广泛应用于世界各地的一项有效措施,保护绿色包装系统的顺利运作是必要通过立法来管理包装生产,流通,健全完善的法律制度,用法律和法规,促进绿色包装的发展。

3。发展环保生产和回收利用技术

包装材料的生命周期全过程的环境绩效进行评价。事实上,目前主要用于纸张,塑料,金属,玻璃在生产过程中使用的包装远远超过环境所造成的废物造成的污染,如纸的纸浆和纸包装的工业废物排放对环境的污染在石油塑料包装原料,精炼大气污染的过程中,金属包装在铣削,涂层工艺的噪声,粉尘污染,身体和工人的心理后果,玻璃包装在熔炼过程,和烟雾排放的二氧化碳,二氧化硅对环境造成的污染… …是非常严重的。因此,要在其生命周期,整个过程的包装材料有一个“绿色”性能,就必须清洁生产。在“清洁能源和原材料”,“清洁生产工艺”,“清洁生产”三要素,最重要的是清洁生产技术的发展,清洁生产工艺,即“减少废物”和“无废物”的过程,建立一个封闭循环生产,使生产过程中,或沉淀或挥发损失的物质损失,通过回收和循环再造泄漏,为原料回来使用,从原材料内置回收利用封闭生产过程中,尽可能减少废物的外部排放,不仅提高了资源利用率,而且也从根本上制止“三废”产生的结束,使包装工业生产不对环境造成危害。在中国,从2003年1月1日正式实施“清洁生产促进法”,生产过程有毒有害,污染环境,应当作为强制性的清洁生产审计。因此,大力发展绿色包装材料,清洁生产的绿色包装材料技术的发展是必不可少的。

单一材质包装,易于回收和再循环,而多层次的复合材料结构必须考虑是否容易分离,不影响再次使用。如铝制饮料听,有机涂料涂在有机涂层的恢复,可熔化,燃烧不会产生回收困难,而复合材料难以分开纸张和塑料包装的净化。复合材料的主要优势与各种功能,{zd0}的缺点是恢复是困难的,很难在隔离层,而且在回收复合材料,如果在一个单一的物质混合,它将使质量复苏单一的物质损失,如铝纸塑复合渗透一个纸板回收化合物,它会损害其殴打执行情况;进入了塑料薄膜的团结,也使回收废旧产品。因此,在复合材料回收一般只能在燃料热回收焚化炉焚烧。高功能和复合材料目前的解决方案,环境之间的性能和矛盾的主要方向:①开发单一高性能材料取代复合材料;②绿色易回收利用复合材料的发展。这两个开发工作是很高的。

商品绿色包装是一个不可逆转的发展趋势,是一项复杂的系统工程,是绿色包装材料的使用,有效的回收是很重要的两个方面之一,只允许发展和包装材料和同时开发中的应用循环再造,以实现真正的绿色循环。06.1.24

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